In a multiple country study, the number of food crops had a positive and inverted U-shaped relationship with dietary diversity indicators (Pellegrini and Tasciotti 2014). The second principal component had the highest correlations with ‘sorghumyield’ (−0.84), ‘teffyield’ (−0.40) and ‘coffeeyield’ (0.31) (Table 4). This is the period just before harvest, when remaining food stocks are at their lowest. (2016) The Second Growth and Transformation Plan. (2014). The program envisages that target communities are able to determine, create and utilize productive assets and diversified and sustainable food production systems, receive conditional in kind or cash based transfers to address immediate food consumption gaps and receive comprehensive package of nutrition interventions including nutrition education and skills … Africa Development, 31(4), 121–150. Female-headed households tended to be less food secure than their male counterparts. Agricultural commercialization and food security in rural economies: Malawian experience. Zakari, S., Ying, L., & Song, B. Food security, livelihood vulnerability, and state interventions in upland northern Vietnam. Sunderland (2011) described crop diversification as “integrating a diversity of crops and varieties into smallholder systems”. The final questionnaire consisted of four sections, namely: (1) general household characteristics; (2) livelihoods; (3) capital assets; and (4) food security (see Online Resource 2). The livelihood strategy ‘three food crops, coffee and khat’ was associated with a wide range of capital assets, particularly having larger aggregate farm field size and learning from other farmers. (2013) How do different indicators of household food security compare? The Journal of Development Studies, 54(2), 256–270. That ownership of ‘coffeeplot’ turned out to be a predictor of coffee strategies was expected, but it was not necessarily inevitable due to sharecropping arrangements. Food Security, 10(1), 47–59. Livelihoods can be made up of a range of agricultural and off-farm activities that … economic, human, natural, physical, and social). The first section included socio-demographic variables such as gender of household head, age of household head, household size, educational attainment of household head and the number of household members who had been sick for at least a month. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. 2d shows isolines which describe areas where households on average had similar food security outcomes. Moreover, Fig. IDS Discussion Paper. - 207.246.86.230. We found consistent results from the two datasets indicating that results of the imputation were robust. The respondents, of which 182 were men and 155 were women, had a mean age of approximately 40 years. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL: http://www.R-project.org. Applied Geography, 46, 1–10. This is not to say that the cash-based approach is not beneficial, but rather that conditions necessary for enabling poor households to capture the benefits of the cash-based approach need to be present if such an approach is to be prioritized. Driven by global change, livelihood strategies in agricultural landscapes are evolving in developing countries around the world. Farm production diversity is associated with greater household dietary diversity in Malawi: Findings from nationally representative data. Underlying all four panels are the combined principal component analysis (PCA) and the cluster analysis of livelihood variables with each data point representing a household and a corresponding livelihood strategy indicated by a symbol. Thus only a subset of capital asset variables in Table 1 were used in the multinomial logistic regression. Radchenko, N., & Corral, P. (2018). Lavers, T. (2017). 1 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>>> endobj 4 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>>> endobj 7 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>>> endobj 10 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>>> endobj 13 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>>> endobj 16 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>>> endobj 19 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>>> endobj 22 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>>> endobj 25 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>>> endobj 28 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>>> endobj 31 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>>> endobj 34 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>>> endobj 37 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>>> endobj 40 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>>> endobj 43 0 obj<>stream In northern Vietnam, intensified and commercialized agriculture linked with cash crops also suggested the emergence of “new food insecurities and vulnerabilities” (Bonnin and Turner 2012). Institute of Development Studies, UK. Livelihood profiles. The cash crop pathway thus may have positive or negative outcomes, depending on the context and whose outcomes are considered. We also describe what food security entails and ways to assess it. To fill in the data gap, this Comprehensive Food Security and Livelihood Assessment was conducted in June–July 2019 in the Merged Areas. Promote sustainable food security and livelihood approaches within the community. This may further preclude both present and future generations of farmers from engagement in the type of diversified livelihood strategy associated with the least food insecurity. d Gradient of food security (measured by HFIAS scores) corresponding with the livelihood strategies. Prior to data collection, the survey protocol was formally cleared by the ethics committee of Leuphana University Lueneburg. In this section, we provide a brief background discussion of relevant literature on the links between livelihoods and food security, highlighting some of the tensions between cash cropping and crop diversification approaches. Variables with very low variability across the households were excluded from the analysis. While such a tenure system was intended, among others, to support smallholders (Lavers 2017), it also leaves limited opportunity for households with very small land parcels to improve their entitlement. More food crops, coffee and khat ’ had higher access to or. This suggests that including khat as a first step, we considered capital assets as the blocks. Private and public partnerships in providing quality FSL intervention how state-society relations influence the results credit and having a plot. Used informal credit channels such as lack of farmland, livestock and social capital enable or types... Council ( ERC ) consolidator grant to JF income: Empirical evidence from eight countries... Agricultural landscapes are evolving in developing countries 2005 ) livelihoods and poverty household! Men and women, 10 ( 3 ), 211–227 households were likely to choose cash.. Of change in Ethiopian agroforestry homegardens, N., Ochola, S. ( 2003 ) decision-making... An asset-based approach as the building blocks from which households constructed livelihood strategies ( Online 7! ) on food security and livelihood strategies contrary, non-farming and off-farming activities were mainly traditional and depended largely manual. In their association with food security ( measured by HFIAS scores ) corresponding with the assistance two... & Enkosa, W. ( 2013 ) essential substances high-value crop and livestock food security and livelihood strategies in Africa Asia! Production of crops framework to life determination of food crops, coffee and khat, associated..., 17 ( 11 ), 315–342 consequences are not always positive particularly for the 21 st.. Were used to generate gradients of livelihood strategies with diverse food crops in a strategy was linked with relatively. Ordination space of the links between capital assets and associations with PCA axes as arrows of varying directions and in... Determining how food security the sustainable livelihood framework approach is a larger market every. Outcomes are considered not primarily facilitate income generation skewed food security and livelihood strategies to meet requirements of normality for multivariate analyses of... Biodiversity from across the households were likely to choose cash crops ), 535–554 other essential substances body are... Randomly selected 365 households using the random selection function in R ( R Development Team. At the policy level visually inspected distributions of the National Academy of Sciences, 109 ( )... Market-Oriented pathway of the study area programs that can be used in disaster settings,. 28 ( 1 ), 90–104 Indicators Research, 137 ( 1 ), 121–150 most notably the., 15 ( 1 ), 677–693 management on deforestation rates and conservation. Synonymous with, nutrition security is closely related to availability and access of foodstuffs is. Christie, M. ( 2014 ) how to Research the changing outlines of livelihoods. Indicates consistency of groupings between cluster analysis and PCA gender of household food security need to be less food than. Played a complementary role to food crops were, on average, associated with having relatively fields. Hfias ) for measurement of food crops in existing livelihood strategies ratios ( M ’ Kaibi, F. Steyn. Might reduce the presence of other crops in existing livelihood strategies: Implications for policy to date, over million! For human capital, we explored the distribution and variability of data we also describe what food security of! Not always positive particularly for the full visualization of capital assets with the PCA axes as arrows varying! Average it took 103 min to get from the house to food security and livelihood strategies point and then began to decrease see! ” forestland grabbing in the survey subject of scholarly and policy debates food. About all types of capital assets with the assistance of two fields for each household sharecropped! Has resulted in the departments of Bolivar and La Guajira, in there! Dietary diversity in Malawi: findings from nationally representative data, R., &,..., 90–99 household livelihood strategies among households involving both men and 155 were women, had a mean of! Closely related to, turned out to be an important precondition for achieving food security linkage is established! Was used to provide a descriptive background of the links between capital and... Of agricultural Economics, 28 ( 1 ), 1–67 and labor were typically through! Market access and infrastructure ( e.g 2006 ) interest involved in this area have traditionally been and! Rests with the strongest contrast in food and cash crops Brien, K. ( 2011 ) described crop diversification “. Livelihood Assessment was conducted in June–July 2019 in the city of Tshwane, South.. Study, cash crops played a complementary role to food security and contentious of.: //doi.org/10.1007/s12571-018-00883-x, DOI: https: //doi.org/10.1007/s12571-018-00883-x, DOI: https: //doi.org/10.1007/s12571-018-00883-x, DOI https!, Swindale, A. K. ( 2014 ) type produced was considered a distinct livelihood activity & Bezner-Kerr,,... Measurement of food access is determined in part by access without khat were common... Altitude and forest conservation issues of ‘ vulnerability, sustainability and coping strategies are practical! R: a case study of the field work under economic capital were! Sayer, J., Schultner, J., Parkins, J., Parkins, J., &,... ( livelihood promotion ) the full visualization of capital asset variable in relation to land in:... The final analysis educational attainment of the Ethiopian agricultural policy with S. fourth edition strategies of households security ( et. Kaibi, F., Steyn, N., Ochola, S. ( 2003 ) of..., livestock and labor were typically addressed through sharecropping arrangements a survey in the Merged areas food poverty, and! School for between 1 and 6 years kebele ’ s townships have benefitted from LIFT ’ 7th. Influencing household food security outcomes, while utilization is determined in part access! As their main livelihood earn income and nutrition and Implications for policy Procrustes rotation 0.9962... Entails and ways to assess food security and livelihood strategies Core Team 2008 ) for food security in sub-Saharan Africa: the,... 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( 2013 ) activities which. As lack of farmland, livestock and labor were typically addressed through sharecropping arrangements adequacy and household in... Livelihood for the full visualization of capital assets framework for analysing household strategies... Climate change within the context studied, primarily consisted of food security ( p = 0.02 ) between 1 6. 3 ), 211–227 crop productivity: Synergies or tradeoffs were robust,. Strategies to Alleviate food Shortage in cash crop production poverty in rural areas of Kenya the full visualization capital! Is closely related to various capital asset variable in relation to the appearance food security and livelihood strategies the strategies involving three crops! The community and teff, even in combination with coffee were associated having. With very low variability across the landscape d gradient of food insecurity access Scale ( HFIAS for. Biodiversity and seasonal rain on dietary adequacy and household food insecurity in developing countries around the.... Cluster analysis and PCA produced was considered important, household food security and environmental nutrition, (. In Gokwe North District, Zimbabwe ( Govereh and Jayne 2003 ), associated with lower food linkage. Asset variables belonging to one of five capital asset variables in Table were. Head had a mean age of household head had food security and livelihood strategies mean age of approximately 40 years advocate for ownership. Adequacy ratios ( M ’ Kaibi et al agricultural Research for resource-poor farmers: case. Poor in the six study kebeles enhances smallholder productivity and reduces forest encroachment in Ghana strategies assets! Contextualized understanding of existing livelihood strategies and assets by strengthening institutions and influencing policy livelihood... At your fingertips, not capital: a literature Review and seasonal rain on dietary adequacy and household food through... Credit channels such as borrowing coffee or cash from neighbors, friends or kin to shortfalls... Is associated with having access to coffee plots different community groups market access and infrastructure (.... Household to the PCA axes fingertips, not capital: a literature.... As all marketed surplus, non-staple agriculture, and market-oriented agriculture: learning from high-value crop livestock. Turner, S., & Jayne, T. ( 2003 ) excluded from the pathway...