Any member who by word or action showed that his principles were contrary to the constitution and the rights of man was to be expelled. The main leader of the Jacobins was Jean-Paul Marat. François Noel Babeuf They did not support the petition of 17 July 1791 for the king's dethronement, but instead published their own petition calling for replacement of king Louis XVI. Presses Universitaires de France, Paris: 1989. monastery of the Jacobins in the Rue Saint-Honoré, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, the petition of 17 July 1791 for the king's dethronement, History of France § War and internal uprisings (October 1791–August 1792), History of France § Bloodbath in Paris and the Republic established (September 1792), History of France § Showdown in the Convention (May–June 1793), History of France § Counter-revolution subdued (July 1793–April 1794), Committee of Public Prosperity (or Public Safety), were sentenced to death by the National Convention and guillotined, Robespierre and other leading Montagnards and Jacobins being executed in July 1794, Fraternal Society of Patriots of Both Sexes, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, "The British Origins of the French Jacobins: Radical Sociability and the Development of Political Club Networks, 1787–1793", "Is it time to stop using the word 'terrorist'? ." The Jacobins as a political force were seen as "less selfish, more patriotic, and more sympathetic to the Paris Populace. . The ideology of the Jacobins. Basing-stoke, U.K., 1998. In the south and west, up to two thousand Jacobins were killed by "white Terror" gangs: the victims were often purchasers of nationalized property, and many of them were Protestants. T. F. HOAD "Jacobin See alsoCommittee of Public Safety; Danton, Georges-Jacques; French Revolution; Girondins; Marat, Jean-Paul; Robespierre, Maximilien. The Jacobins supported individual property rights but were more inclined towards the middle-class than any other faction of the French Revolution. The constitution reassured the protection of personal freedom and social progress within French society. https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/jacobins, JOHN CANNON "Jacobins Retrieved January 12, 2021 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/jacobin-1, T. F. HOAD "Jacobin "Jacobins During the constitutional monarchy there were two radical groups vying for power, the Girondins and the Jacobins. . The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. In late 1791, the Girondins first emerged as an important power in France. Translated by Arthur Goldhammer. The Jacobins were meticulous in maintaining a legal structure for the Terror, so clear records exist for official death sentences. [42], The political rhetoric and populist ideas espoused by the Jacobins would lead to the development of the modern leftist movements throughout the 19th and 20th century, with Jacobinism being the political foundation of almost all leftist schools of thought including anarchism, communism and socialism. [2][7], By early 1791, clubs like the Jacobins, the Club des Cordeliers and the Cercle Social were increasingly dominating French political life. In the British Empire the political term Jacobin reached obsolescence and supersedence before the Russian Revolution, when the terms (Radical) Marxism, Socialism and Communism had overtaken it. In 1792–1793, the Girondins were more prominent in leading France when France declared war on Austria and on Prussia, overthrew the monarchy and set up the French First Republic. Fair Shares for All: Jacobin Egalitarianism in Practice. The first coincided with the period of the constitutional monarchy, when the club was known as the Societies of the Friends of the Constitution. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Dictionary of American History. Within a month, about two hundred provincial Jacobin clubs had complained angrily about the unexpected repercussions against all those associated with the Jacobin dominance of the Year II. Their members had faith, enthusiasm, recklessness and ambition. ———. There was to be a president, elected every month, four secretaries, a treasurer, and committees elected to superintend elections and presentations, the correspondence, and the administration of the club. "Jacobinism," however, had become a loaded epithet in American political rhetoric, used by Federalists to target not only radical democrats but also any follower of Thomas Jefferson, or any member of the Democratic Republican Party. [33] The Jacobin Club was finally disbanded on 12 November 1794. Numbers of men were members of two or more of such clubs. Many members of Jacobin clubs were also deputies and used the meetings to orgam\nize forces and plan tactics. The Jacobins were known as sans-culottes and that means who were those without knee breeches. A majority of the Convention agreed to put Marat on trial, but the court of justice quickly acquitted Marat. The Jacobin Club was closed after the fall of Robespierre on the 9th of Thermidor of the year III., and some of its members were executed. Encyclopedia.com. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). The Jacobin Club was created by Maximilien Robespierre in June 1789. It is more controversially, and less squarely, used by or for proponents of a strong nation-state capable of resisting undesirable foreign interference. Gross, Jean-Pierre. Its members avenged themselves on the Directory by supporting Napoleon Bonaparte. The most prominent political clubs of the French Revolution were the Jacobin Clubs that sprung up throughout Paris and the provinces in August of 1789. It passed decrees declaring émigrés "civilly dead," providing for public relief, and placing controls on grain and bread prices. [8] The name Jacobins, given in France to the Dominicans (because their first house in Paris was in the Rue Saint-Jacques), was first applied to the club in ridicule by its enemies. Napoleon Bonaparte Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. [7], The club was re-founded in November 1789, after an address from the London Revolution Society congratulating the French on "conquering their liberty" led National Assembly deputies to found their own Société de la Révolution. The Jacobins were able to add to their strength by capturing the Paris Commune. https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/jacobin, ELIZABETH KNOWLES "Jacobin Their leader was Maximilien de Robespierre, and they were in power of the … ——. Prominent Jacobins joined more radical clubs in calling for Louis's forced abdication, but most of the members of the National Assembly were concerned with consolidating the state of the Revolution as expressed in the new constitution, and deserted the Jacobin Club for the Feuillants, similarly named after its meeting place in a former convent. In August 1792, there were 26,000 Jacobin clubs in France. The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. As a result, they were a monopolizing power and in the National Convention the Jacobins arrested and killed 22 Girondins. The Terror in the French Revolution. ." The issue of Louis's loyalty, however, was far from resolved. The club further included people like "père" Michel Gérard, a peasant proprietor from Tuel-en-Montgermont, in Brittany, whose rough common sense was admired as the oracle of popular wisdom, and whose countryman's waistcoat and plaited hair were later on to become the model for the Jacobin fashion. Their time in government featured high levels of political violence, and for this reason the period of the Jacobin/Mountain government is identified as the Reign of Terror. . ." On 9 Thermidor Year II (27 July 1794), at some time in the evening, Louis Legendre was sent out to close the Jacobin Club, which had been gathering every Saturday evening. [11], Maximilien Robespierre, also a Jacobin, strongly pleaded against war with Prussia and Austria – but in the Jacobin Club, not in the Assembly where he was not seated. [3], In France, Jacobin now generally leans towards moderate authoritarianism, more equal formal rights and centralization. The period, from mid-1793 to mid-1794, when Robespierre and the Jacobins ruled France and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed. The cultural influence of the Jacobin movement was effective in reinforcing these rudiments, developing a milieu for revolution. They were radical revolutionaries who plotted the downfall of the king and the rise of the French Republic. [12][15], Around June 1793, Maximilien Robespierre and some of his associates (Montagnards) gained greater power in France. Solve previous years history questions for UPSC Mains, visit the linked article. Baltimore, Md. During this time, there were groups that wanted this revolution and two of these are Girondins and Jacobins. From the start, however, other elements were also present. Materialism contra Idealism Israel’s main historical division is that between two camps of revolutionaries: the Girondins, who were anti-Rousseauians, and the Jacobins, who were fanatical Rousseauians. [16] In March 1794, the Montagnard Hébert and some followers were sentenced to death; in April the Montagnard Danton and 13 of his followers were sentenced to death; in both cases after insinuation by Robespierre in the Convention that those "internal enemies" were promoting 'the triumph of tyranny'. The Oxford Companion to British History. . [7], The Jacobin Club supported the monarchy up until the very eve of the republic (20 September 1792). The first American club began in Philadelphia in 1793. ." ), Jacobs, A.J. The inside of a Jacobin Club, Anonymous Print, from Decaux. The Dominicans in France were called Jacobins because their first house in Paris was the Saint Jacques Monastery. The Jacobins thought he needed to die to ensure the safety of the revolution. Democratic-Republican Societies, 1790–1800. Maximilien Robespierre and his Jacobin “Committee of Public Safety’ highjacked the late 18th-century French Revolution. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. The Men of the First French Republic: Political Alignments in the National Convention of 1792. [46][47] The undercurrent of radical and populist tendencies espoused and enacted by the Jacobins would create a complete cultural and societal shock within the traditional and conservative governments of Europe, leading to new political ideas of society emerging. The Jacobins in the National Convention had 22 Girondin leaders arrested and executed. Leftist organizations would take different elements from Jacobin's core foundation. Only then would the implementation of the Jacobins' democratic constitution of June 1793 be possible. But instead, the Jacobins moved even more radically to the left. The Jacobins were basically an illuminized type of Freemasonry. . Solve previous years history questions for UPSC Mains, visit the linked article. [7], By the March on Versailles in October 1789, the club, still entirely composed of deputies, reverted to being a provincial caucus for National Constituent Assembly deputies from Brittany. James VIII/III attempted to claim the throne twice, in 1708 and in 1715, which resulted in a rising led by the Earl of Mar. By now, they stopped visiting the Jacobin Club. The Reign of Terror was a period of intense violence led by Robespierre’s Jacobins, during which the guillotine became the most potent … The Jacobins were a group of French anti-royalist republicans, founded in 1789, the same year as the French Revolution. [37] In power, they completed the abolition of feudalism in France that had been formally decided 4 August 1789 but had been held in check by a clause requiring compensation for the abrogation of the feudal privileges. Initially, their aims were popular in the cities, but after American disillusionment with the French minister Edmond Charles Genêt, the influence of the Jacobin clubs waned. [12], On 2 June 1793, the Convention was besieged in its Tuileries Palace by a crowd of around 80,000 armed soldiers, clamorously on the hand of the Montagnards. By July 1794 the Paris Jacobin club was closed after the Jacobin leaders associated with Robespierre lost power. To maintain the imprescribable rights of man. Late July 1794, Robespierre and 21 associates including the Jacobin Saint-Just and the Montagnard Couthon were sentenced to death by the National Convention and guillotined. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. (January 12, 2021). They are often associated with a period of violence during the French Revolution called "the Terror." The government in Paris called such revolts 'federalist' which was not accurate: most did not strive for regional autonomy but for a different central government. They were known more fully as the Société des Jacobins, amis de la liberté et de l’égalité. Reprint, with a new preface by the author, Princeton, N.J., 1989. There the term Jacobin linked primarily to The Mountain of the French Revolutionary governments and was popular among the established and entrepreneurial classes. Most prominent among them was Brissot, other members were Pierre Vergniaud, Fauchet, Maximin Isnard, Jean-Marie Roland. Besides the teenage son of the Duc d'Orléans, Louis Philippe, a future king of France, liberal aristocrats such as the duc d'Aiguillon, the prince de Broglie, and the vicomte de Noailles, and the bourgeoisie formed the mass of the members. The Jacobin dictatorship was known for enacting the Reign of Terror, which targeted speculators, monarchists, left-wing agitators, and traitors, and led to many beheadings. Cambridge, U.K., 1997. "Jacobins ELIZABETH KNOWLES "Jacobin "Jacobins Women were not accepted as members of the Jacobin Club (nor of most other clubs), but they were allowed to follow the discussions from the balconies. Viscount Dundee, James' most zealous Scottish supporter, rallied troops and turned to military action against William and Mary's government forces. But this is a false opposition, since Rousseau was used piecemeal to justify both Girondin and Jacobin agendas. The Society of the Friends of the Constitution (French: Société des amis de la Constitution), renamed the Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality (Société des Jacobins, amis de la liberté et de l'égalité) after 1792 and commonly known as the Jacobin Club (Club des Jacobins) or simply the Jacobins (/ˈdʒækəbɪn/; French: [ʒakɔbɛ̃]), was the most influential political club during the French Revolution of 1789. 1972. . Despite the considerable consensus in the Convention, in the autumn and winter of 1792–1793 it tended to divide between Jacobins and their antagonists, the "Girondins." For the majority of the Convention, however, the goal of the Terror was the attainment of peace, and economic and political controls were accepted as temporary and regrettable impositions to that end rather than for the realization of the Jacobins' sweeping proposals to regenerate society. An organization composed of people who voluntarily meet on a regular basis for a mutual purpose other than educational, religious, charitable, o…, Georges Jacques Danton The most notorious deputy connected with the Jacobin club is Robespierre. The Jacobin Club was finally disbanded on 12 November 1794. The French Jacobins believed in universal equality among citizens, the freedom of the individual, and universal brotherhood. The Oxford Companion to British History. . (January 12, 2021). The French political revolutionist and writer François Noel Babeuf (1760-1797) was active during the French…, Jacobi, Jolande Szekacs (Mrs. Andrew Jacobi) (1890-? Also the Jacobin Club seems not to have played a decisive role any longer. But after June 1792, Girondins visited less and less the Jacobin Club, where Robespierre, their fierce opponent, grew more and more dominant.[13]. [16] Many of them, like Robespierre himself, were Jacobin: Fouché,[17] Collot d'Herbois,[16] Billaud-Varenne,[18] Marat,[16] Danton,[19] Saint-Just. As commented in Jean-Jacques Rousseau's 1762 book The Social Contract, "Citizenship is the expression of a sublime reciprocity between individual and General will. . ." Palmer, R. R. Twelve Who Ruled: The Year of the Terror in the French Revolution. A Jacobin (French pronunciation: [ʒakɔbɛ̃]), in the context of the French Revolution, was a member of the Jacobin Club, a revolutionary far-left political movement. Robespierre was viewed as the quintessential political force of the Jacobin Movement, thrusting ever deeper the dagger of liberty within the despotism of the Monarchy. The Jacobin philosophy of a complete dismantling of an old system, with completely radical and new structures, is historically seen as one of the most revolutionary and important movements throughout modern history. The Jacobins, the radical wing of the petit-bourgeois democracy, succeeded because they, unlike the Girondins, were prepared to lean upon the masses to deal with reaction. ." The Assembly in April 1792 finally decided for war, thus following the 'Girondin' line on it, but Robespierre's place among the Jacobins had now become much more prominent. [citation needed], The Jacobin Club developed into a bureau for French republicanism and revolution, rejecting its original laissez-faire economic policy and economic liberal approach in favour of economic interventionism. JACOBIN CLUBS, activist political clubs that appeared in the cities of the United States in the years from 1793 to 1795. Although both groups were more radical in their views than the moderates who had designed the constitutional monarchy, the Girondins were somewhat less radical. The Revolutionary Tribunal summarily condemned thousands of people to death by guillotine, while mobs beat other victims to death. ." Kennedy, Michael L. The Jacobin Club of Marseilles, 1790–1794. More broadly, however, it may be applied to the dominant political tendency of the Revolution from 1789 until the closure of the Jacobin Club of Paris on 12 November 1794. ." The Jacobin Clubs in the French Revolution, 1793–1795. In social and political terms, Jacobins such as Maximilien Robespierre, Georges Danton, Camille Desmoulins, and Jean-Paul Marat were somewhat closer to the popular movement, and the Jacobins' habit of sitting together on the upper-left-hand benches in the Convention quickly earned them the epithet of "Mountain" and an image of uncompromising republicanism, for example, over the fate of Louis XVI. The period, from mid-1793 to mid-1794, when Robespierre and the Jacobins ruled France and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed. Once in power, the Jacobins completed the overthrow of the Ancien Régime and successfully defended the Revolution from military defeat. Link, Eugene Perry. Retrieved January 12, 2021 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/jacobins-0. [7], Late 1791, a group of Jacobins in the Legislative Assembly advocated war with Prussia and Austria. "[51] This view of citizenship and the General Will, once empowered, could simultaneously embrace the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and adopt the liberal French Constitution of 1793, then immediately suspend that constitution and all ordinary legality and institute Revolutionary Tribunals that did not grant a presumption of innocence. [20] Three other powerful Montagnards[16] were not known as Jacobin: Barère,[21] Hébert[22] and Couthon. Indeed, during the war, Radical Republicans in Congress were commonly cursed as “Jacobins,” and their unofficial leader, Thaddeus Stevens — soon to be buried in an interracial cemetery — was nominated by one British observer “the Robespierre, Danton, and Marat of America, all rolled into one.” The period of its political ascendancy includes the Reign of Terror, during which time well over ten thousand people were put on trial and executed in France, many for political crimes. ." The Jacobins had won. Jacobins were originally a faction or group in Paris who met in the old Dominican convent at the church of St Jacques, and opposed the more moderate Girondin group. [7][32], With Robespierre and other leading Montagnards and Jacobins being executed in July 1794, Montagnards and Girondins as groups seem to have ceased to play a significant role in French history: historians make no more mention of them. Led by Maximilien Robespierre in 1793, the clubs helped support the most radical phase of the French Revolution. ." [3][14], Many of these Montagnards (and Jacobins) entered, or were already, in the de facto executive government of France, the Committee of Public Prosperity (or Public Safety): Barère was in it since April 1793[24] until at least October 93,[16] Danton served there from April until July 1793,[19] Couthon[25] and Saint-Just[26] had entered the Committee in May, Robespierre entered it in July,[16] Collot d'Herbois[27] in September and Billaud-Varenne[18] also around September 1793. By September 1792, Robespierre indeed had also become the dominant voice in the Jacobin Club. New York: Columbia University Press, 1942. 12 Jan. 2021 . 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