How to calculate proportions . Gm is the amount of gain variance required to make the loop gain unity at the frequency Wcg where the phase angle is –180° (modulo 360°). Answer Save. The relevant marginal table. The CSS margin properties are used to create space around elements, outside of any defined borders.. With CSS, you have full control over the margins. Apply a function to each cell of a ragged array, that is to each (non-empty) group of values given by a unique combination of the levels of certain factors. MARGIN: We want to apply the operation by row. vector of dimensions over which to form margins. Margins are formed in the order in which dimensions are specified in margin. The R Function of the Day series will focus on describing in plain language how certain R functions work, focusing on simple examples that you can apply to gain insight into your own data.. Today, I will discuss the tapply function. Below are a few basic uses of this powerful function as well as one of it’s sister functions lapply. When I look at the source of R Packages, i see the function sweep used quite often. –margin specifies if you want to apply by row (margin = 1), by column (margin = 2), or for each element (margin = 1:2). The Family of Apply functions pertains to the R base package, and is populated with functions to manipulate slices of data from matrices, arrays, lists and data frames in a repetitive way.Apply Function in R are designed to avoid explicit use of loop constructs. If n is 0, the result has length 0 but not necessarily the ‘correct’ dimension. The margin argument takes a number or a vector of numbers, but it can be a bit confusing. CSS Margins. The margins are numbered the same way as in the apply() function. Edit: This post originally appeared on my WordPress blog on September 20, 2009. If each call to FUN returns a vector of length n, then apply returns an array of dimension c(n,dim(x)[MARGIN]) if n > 1.If n equals 1, apply returns a vector if MARGIN has length 1 and an array of dimension dim(x)[MARGIN] otherwise.. If the function is simple, you can create it right inside the arguments for apply. Buying on margin means you are investing with borrowed money. In the case of apply(), there is no difference. There are other functions in the apply family (sapply, mapply, rollapply, etc.) For example, par(mar=c(5.1,4.1,4.1,2.1) sets the bottom, left, top and right margins respectively of the plot region in number of lines of text. I have been confused with sweep many times in the past but I think you are confused with apply.. To learn more, launch our online finance courses now! If your account falls below the maintenance margin… margin.table {base} R Documentation: Compute table margin Description. It is fairly straightforward to set the margins of a graph in R by calling the par() function with the mar (for margin!) These functions allow crossing the data in a number of ways and avoid explicit use of loop constructs. If the calls to FUN return vectors of different lengths, apply returns a list of length prod(dim(X)[MARGIN]) with dim set to MARGIN if this has length greater than one. Table 2: Example Matrix After Simple Application of sweep in R. As you can see, all zeros where replaced by 5. Typically vector-like, allowing subsetting with [. If n equals 1, apply returns a vector if MARGIN has length 1 and an array of dimension dim(X)[MARGIN] otherwise. The figure can vary dramatically by . EBITDA Margin = EBITDA / Net Sales . To change the font size of text elements, use cex (short for character expansion ratio). The MARGIN argument means exactly the same thing in both functions and that is row-wise operation. What if instead, I wanted to find n-1 for each column? It is calculated by dividing the operating profit by total revenue and expressing as a percentage. Base R does have a function called mode(), but it’s for something much different. After you determine the cost of a product, you can subtract this from the sales price to get the net profit. Net sales reported in the income statement shows an amount of $5M. yes/no. The horizontal ruler displayed below the Word menu provides another way to change the margins in your document. what does this mean? Usage margin.table(x, margin) Arguments. (On the Packages tab, select Install, and then in the Install dialog box, type modeest in the Packages box and click Install. The initial margin requirement is set by federal law and varies from product to product. argument. Margin can be even greater than 2, if we work with variables of dimension greater than two. Margin is the money borrowed from a broker to purchase an investment and is the difference between the total value of investment and the loan amount. Depreciation and amortization total $100,000. The default value is 1. Margin: Allows you to borrow money from your broker to invest with the money you place into your account as collateral. Keywords iteration, category. apply() function applies a function to margins of an array or matrix. Use the Ruler to Adjust Margins in Word . The apply function in R is used as a fast and simple alternative to loops. –function is the function you want to apply to the elements of your variable. Usage tapply(X, INDEX, FUN = NULL, …, default = NA, simplify = TRUE) Arguments X. an R object for which a split method exists. The gross margin reveals the amount that a business earns from the sale of its products and services, before the deduction of any selling and administrative expenses . The steps to change margins remain the same. R tapply, lapply, sapply, apply, mapply functions usage. AccountingTools . 1 decade ago. The … INDEX. Default value: 0: Inherited: no: Animatable: yes, see individual properties. Instead, you need a package called modeest in your library. To apply a predefined margin, select Layout > Margins and choose the predefined margin you want to use. I am printing the matrix below so that it is easy to visually compare with apply and sweep later on: > m [,1] [,2] [1,] 1 4 [2,] 2 5 [3,] 3 6 8 Answers. All possible values for margin? Let’s go through the code step by step: x: Our example matrix, which is called data. Similar functions include lapply(), sapply(), mapply() and tapply().These functions are more efficient than loops when handling data in batch. A high net profit margin means that a company is able to effectively control its costs and/or provide goods or services at a price significantly higher than its costs. Sales margin is calculated the same way that gross profit margin, also known as margin, is. Example Calculation. Adam J. Lv 6. x: an array: margin: index number (1 for rows, etc.) Sometimes it's used when a simpler function would have sufficed (e.g., apply), other times, it's impossible to know exactly what it's is doing without spending a fair amount of time to step through the code block it's in. Therefore, we set MARGIN = 1. If the calls to FUN return vectors of different lengths, apply returns a list of length prod(dim(X)[MARGIN]) with dim set to MARGIN if this has length greater than one. The apply() family pertains to the R base package and is populated with functions to manipulate slices of data from matrices, arrays, lists and dataframes in a repetitive way. Favorite Answer. Value. margin: vector of dimensions over which to form margins. R apply Functions. So 1 stands for rows and 2 for columns. To add the column margin, you need to set margin to 2, but this column margin contains the row totals. FUN: list of the same length as margin, each element of the list being either a function or a list of functions. The apply() Family. Expressed as a percentage, profit margin … Rui Barradas Hello, 2L is an integer, 2 might be or not. For example, to buy stock on margin, you must have at least 50% of the purchase price in your account. Margin Calls A margin call occurs when the investments in the account and the cash decrease in value and fall below the minimum maintenance margin amount. If n equals 1, apply returns a vector if MARGIN has length 1 and an array of dimension dim(X)[MARGIN] otherwise. Because we are using columns, MARGIN = 2. apply(my.matrx, 2, length) ## [1] 10 10 10. Gross margin is a company’s net sales minus its cost of goods sold . After the initial transaction, maintenance rules set by the self-regulatory organizations, such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and NASD, apply. To reduce the text size, use a cex value of less than 1; to increase the text size, use a cex value greater than 1. yes/no. In Word Online, Word 2010 and Word 2007, the Layout tab is labeled as Page Layout. margin. Profit margin gauges the degree to which a company or a business activity makes money, essentially by dividing income by revenues. It allows users to apply a function to a vector or data frame by row, by column or to the entire data frame. Gross margin is a company's net sales revenue minus its cost of goods sold (COGS). The Apply family comprises: apply, lapply , sapply, vapply, mapply, rapply, and tapply. How to change font size of text and axes on R plots. FUN. If n is 0, the result has length 0 but not necessarily the “correct” dimension. … Dividing that net profit by the sales price gives you the sales margin as a percentage. Similarly, the phase margin is the difference between the phase of the response and –180° when the loop gain is 1.0. Any possible(*) combination of the dimensions of 'x' in apply(x, margin, function) (*) non-null. There are properties for setting the margin for each side of an element (top, right, bottom, and left). If the margin property has two values: margin: 10px 5px; top and bottom margins are 10px; right and left margins are 5px; If the margin property has one value: margin: 10px; all four margins are 10px; Note: Negative values are allowed. In other words, the gain margin is 1/g if g is the gain at the –180° phase frequency. list of the same length as margin, each element of the list being either a function or a list of functions. This is really just apply(x,margin,sum) packaged up for newbies. 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